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  • 熱門搜索: 共和國作家文庫 尹建莉 何建明 遲子建 新概念作文 周國平 活著 三重門
    盜墓文學開創者天下霸唱:寫現實是我的一個心結

    眾所周知,天下霸唱的代表作《鬼吹燈》曾風靡華語世界,之前的作品無一不是延續著古...

    劉心武:《續紅樓夢》不為個人價值

    很長時間以來,劉心武與《紅樓夢》這個標簽一直形影不離,他并不抗拒“紅學家”的頭...

    中國網文,為何走紅

    作者:葛亮亮 吳向廷 史一棋   發布時間:2017年05月09日  來源:人民日報  

    去年開始,一家名為wuxiaworld的網站進入大眾視野,中國人一般稱之為“武俠世界”。雖以武俠命名,但它是一個徹徹底底的美國網站。創始人叫賴靜平,曾是美國駐越南大使館的一名外交官。在網站上,他的網名是RWX,是金庸小說《笑傲江湖》中任我行的姓名拼音縮寫。

    最近,在“武俠世界”的帶動下,中國網絡文學海外傳播成為媒體關注的熱點。在各種報道中,中國網文頗有走向世界的架勢。中國網絡文學在國外真有這么火嗎,走紅原因是什么,下一步發展需要破解哪些問題?

    百萬外國讀者并非虛言,類型小說極具吸引力

    頗具歐美范兒的網絡小說《盤龍》以魔法故事為背景,被認為是西方奇幻類小說在中國通俗化的代表。2014年12月4日,當賴靜平還在翻譯《盤龍》時,他就在PayPal上接受了第一筆捐助。同月22日,他創立“武俠世界”網站。

    “擁有百萬老外讀者并非虛言。”北京大學中文系副教授邵燕君說。據“武俠世界”2017年2月的統計數據,今年以來,該站每日頁面點擊量在400萬上下,每日來訪用戶量接近30萬。受限于網文翻譯速度較慢、類型尚不夠豐富,大部分讀者并不會每天登陸網站追看小說,若將每月至少登陸一次的讀者視為活躍讀者,那么“武俠世界”的活躍讀者數已超過250萬,在兩年的時間里迅速躥升至全球Alexa排名第954的大型網站。而僅次于“武俠世界”,流量排名第二的網文翻譯網站,被稱為“引力世界”的gravitytales網站活躍用戶超過120萬。

    一位網名為JordanFr的讀者看了好幾年中國網絡小說,他在網上留言說:“我想和大家分享這一切,我是法國人,過幾個月就會赴中國武術學校進行密集的武術訓練。”

    如何看待中國網絡文學海外走紅這一文學現象?在邵燕君看來,“這確實是前所未有的,如此大踏步地‘走出去’會提振中國網絡文學界的文化自信,甚至讓人有些不敢相信。”通過網絡,各種潛在的文學資源和活力被重新激活組織起來。“幾百萬的作者、幾億的讀者同時在網上寫著、讀著、對話著、互動著,這樣的生產方式和規模,在人類歷史上確實是空前的,生產出的類型小說能讓外國人為之傾倒,不足為怪。”

    爽點一致、元素新鮮、氣質契合是主因

    生活在暢銷書機制和流行文化都較為成熟的環境中,國外讀者擁有眾多選擇,為何仍會對中國網絡文學如此青睞?

    “這首先是因為網絡文學的自身魅力。”在邵燕君看來,什么叫“進入讀者的日常生活”呢?“就是一個外國人第一次走進中國餐館可能是因為獵奇,但以后還去,而且是經常去、不去就難受,就是因為好吃。”

    和以往精英文化輸出方式不同,中國網絡文學的海外傳播最生猛的力量在于打通了海內外讀者的“快感通道”。從目前狀況來看,老外粉絲愛看中國網絡小說的原因,和國內的粉絲差不多,就是爽——“草根的逆襲”這一主打模式具有相當的普適性,能滿足不同人群共通的欲望。

    “國外粉絲們愛看中國網絡小說的另一個原因是‘新鮮’。”為了更好地服務外國讀者,“武俠世界”還開設專門板塊介紹“道”,例如什么是“道生一,一生二”,“太極生兩儀,兩儀生四象”怎樣理解等。讀者們甚至會在網站上互稱“道友”。“中國文化元素和中國人的想象力也給他們帶來驚奇。”邵燕君說,翻譯網站逐漸成為外國讀者學習中國文化的重要基地。

    “中國網文在北美走紅其實還有一個隱性的原因,就是‘氣質契合’”。邵燕君解釋說,這是和日本輕小說對比而言的,網文翻譯最早的聚集地就是幾個輕小說的據點。“有不少粉絲留言說,看日本輕小說看膩了,覺得那種守護美好日常的主題特沒勁。”

    中國網文則不同,主角通常有著強大的行動力,故事充滿高歌猛進的氣勢,更適合西方讀者的胃口。“引力世界”網站創始人孔雪松也曾說:“除了中國網絡小說,我從來沒有見過這類迅速獲得力量并且可以實現自己愿望的主角,這對讀者的吸引力太大了。”

    提高翻譯質量,加快IP開發,突破文化壁壘

    “網文出海固然可喜,但如要進一步發展,還面臨不少問題。首當其沖,就是文化壁壘。”邵燕君說,雖然海外粉絲已有數百萬之眾,但主流人群似乎知道的不多。

    而且,無論從題材類型、受眾地域還是翻譯數量上看,走出去的網絡文學還相當有限。

    從題材上看,以玄幻、仙俠及歷史虛構小說為主,走出去的仍是很小的類型,國內的網絡小說種類更豐富;從地域上看,受眾以北美、東南亞地區為主;從數量上看,“武俠世界”目前只有約30部譯介作品,與國內每年動輒百萬部的規模無法相比。

    “已經走出去的網絡文學,其中的中國元素也相對有限。太中國化的作品,不僅翻譯上存在難度,也不易引起外國讀者的興趣。”邵燕君說。賴靜平曾以《盤龍》為例說:“這是一部很西化的作品,人名都是西式的,讀者看到就比較親切。”

    “要突破文化壁壘有兩個路徑:首先,可以通過亞馬遜出版系統,進入西方類型文學的主流市場。這就要求高質量的翻譯,也是‘武俠世界’特別重視翻譯質量,并與閱文集團等版權方合作的原因。”邵燕君表示,“另一條路徑,就是通過IP開發,讓海外主流讀者了解網絡小說。如果中國的影視業和動漫游戲產業的水準能快速提升,做出幾部有國際影響的電影或者游戲作品,網絡小說的影響力可能就會突破網絡亞文化空間。”

    “中國網絡文學完全有可能被打造成與美國好萊塢、日本動漫、韓國電視劇并駕齊驅,能代表國家軟實力的世界流行文藝。”邵燕君說。

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