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  • 熱門搜索: 共和國作家文庫 尹建莉 何建明 遲子建 新概念作文 周國平 活著 三重門
    盜墓文學開創者天下霸唱:寫現實是我的一個心結

    眾所周知,天下霸唱的代表作《鬼吹燈》曾風靡華語世界,之前的作品無一不是延續著古...

    劉心武:《續紅樓夢》不為個人價值

    很長時間以來,劉心武與《紅樓夢》這個標簽一直形影不離,他并不抗拒“紅學家”的頭...

    《蘇菲的世界》作者賈德:要通過好故事來傳授哲學

    作者:張正亞   發布時間:2017年06月01日  來源:人民網-讀書頻道  

    全球知名暢銷書作家喬斯坦·賈德十年之后近日再度訪華,1991年他憑借《蘇菲的世界》一書蜚聲文壇,從此奠定全球十大作家的地位。5月27日,他向記者講述了他對于哲學教育的思考:一個好老師應該是一個好的講故事的人,通過好故事來傳授哲學。

    談文學創作:希望孩子永保好奇之心

    問:《蘇菲的世界》一書中,主人公小女孩為什么選在14歲?

    喬斯坦·賈德:不管是男人女人,14歲、15歲可以說是人的一個十字路口。在孩童時代我們每個人都是對生活充滿了驚奇。所以我希望從孩子轉化到成人的時候,我們不要讓日常生活磨損掉好奇心,不要忘了我們日常生活中充滿了驚奇,保持住孩子的狀態。

    問:如果現在重寫《蘇菲的世界》,您會把中國的哲學加入其中嗎?您對中國的哲學了解多少?

    喬斯坦·賈德:如果我要知道將來《蘇菲的世界》是在全世界出版,而且是翻譯成了各個國家的語言,我就不會管它叫《蘇菲的世界》——哲學簡史了,而是會起名叫《蘇菲的世界》——西方哲學簡史。如果重寫的話我就會把印度還有中國的哲學也都加進去。關于中國的哲學,我知道的哲學家就是孔子和儒家,還有道家。還有釋迦牟尼佛教的這一部分,這也是我想補充到其中的。

    談哲學教育:一個好老師應該是一個好的講故事的人

    提問:您認為除了文學創作,還有什么更好的方式可以進行哲學啟蒙教育?

    喬斯坦·賈德:比如說從小學的老師開始,在課堂里教學的時候,都要有這種哲學的做法。雖然孩子提出了問題,他并不能給出所有準確的答案,但是至少要用一種哲學的做法指導他們。

    還有就是父母要鼓勵孩子保持開放的態度,鼓勵孩子們保持自己好奇心,即使有的時候小孩問的問題我們大人也不知道答案是什么。舉個例子,我兒子8歲的時候問說,“你相信我們這個宇宙里其他星球上還有其他的生物嗎?”我也不知道具體的答案,但是我就跟他說,“你想象一下宇宙里面各個星球上都有其他的生物”,他兒子說“哇!”之后我又對他講“那你再想象一下,在我們宇宙里面只有地球上有生物”,兒子想想又說“哇!”雖然我沒有具體回答他這個問題,但是通過這樣的探討,能讓他有更深的理解作為一個在地球上的生物是什么樣的感覺。

    問:“哲學做法”具體是什么意思?

    喬斯坦·賈德:一個好老師應該是一個好的講故事的人,通過這個故事來傳輸哲學,而且老師還應該問學生更多的問題。舉個例子,比如學生問老師“你相信這個世界上是有邪惡的力量或者說有壞人嗎?”老師可能會反問“你怎么想”這樣就會驅使學生來定義一下到底壞人或者邪惡是什么樣的概念。我們人類的大腦是專門接收故事的,而并不是如百科全書般接受系統的知識。

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